Answered By: Library Reviewer
Last Updated: Oct 16, 2014     Views: 1808

The Final Act of the Uruguay Round, signed in Marrakesh on April 15, 1994 includes roughly 60 agreements, annexes, decisions, and understandings, including the Marrakesh Agreement ("WTO Agreement") establishing the WTO, the GATT 1994, as well as other agreements such as the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).

The rule for citing multilateral treaties for which the U.S. is a party is found in rule 21.4.5(a)(ii) of the Bluebook which references a list of official U.S. sources to cite to in section (a)(i) of that same rule. Using Treaties in Force, it can be determined that the Marrakesh Agreement has never appeared in the State Department's official publication of treaties entitled Treaties and Other International Acts (TIAS) or United States Treaties and Other Agreements (U.S.T.).

Thus, moving down the remaining list of acceptable sources in rule 21.4.5(a)(i), the United Nations Treaty Series (U.N.T.S.)  is next on the list. The Marrakesh Agreement appeared in U.N.T.S. at 1867 U.N.T.S.  154Bluebook rule 21.4.5(a(ii) allows for citation to U.N.T.S. when it has not appeared in an official U.S. treaty source as is the case here.

The agreement was also published as part of a House Document (H.R. Doc. No. 103-316, vol. 1 (text begins at page 1320)). A PDF of this document can be found in one of our subscription databases called ProQuest Congressional. A permalink to the document in the database can be found here.

Finally, it was also published in International Legal Materials (ILM) at 33 I.L.M. 1143 (1994). The Bluebook also allows citation to an unofficial source (Rule 21.4.5(c)) when a treaty does not appear in an official U.S. source. Looking at how the Marrakesh Agreement was cited in the periodicals databases on Lexis and Westlaw, this cite to ILM was often also used in addition to the citation to U.N.T.S..

Note: If you are accessing the ProQuest Congressional database or other Burns Law Library subscription databases from off campus, you will need to configure your browser to come through our proxy server. Instructions for doing so can be found here.

For more information about treaty research see our research guide A Guide to Treaty Research here or our LibGuide Treaties and International Agreements at Burns Law Library here.

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